数据库优化一例 zt

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数据库优化一例
问题处理:
1.登陆数据库主机,用sar命令看到idle的值持续为0,CPU的资源已经耗尽:
bz_db1# sar 2 4
SunOS kest 5.8 Generic_108528-19 sun4u 10/26/04
10:56:46 %usr %sys %wio %idle
10:56:48 1 4 95 0
10:56:50 1 5 94 0
10:56:52 0 6 93 0
10:56:54 1 6 93 0
Average 1 5 94 0

2.使用TOP命令看到有两个明显占用CPU利用率过高的进程,以下是top命令的结果:
bz_db1# top
last pid: 1664;load averages: 3.26, 3.24, 3.69
159 processes: 152 sleeping, 2 running, 2 zombie, 1 stopped, 2 on cpu
CPU states: 1.5% idle, 72.5% user, 17.9% kernel, 8.0% iowait, 0.0% swap
Memory: 2.0G real, 233M free, 2.0G swap in use, 3.4G swap free
PID USERNAME THR PR NCE SIZE RES STATE TIME FLTS CPU COMMAND
27420 oracle 1 10 0 1.3G 1.2G cpu01 22.9H 2 31.94% oracle
27418 oracle 1 10 0 1.3G 1.2G run 23.0H 6 26.86% oracle
5943 oracle 1 59 0 1.3G 1.2G sleep 25:26 37 4.92% oracle
6295 oracle 1 55 0 1.3G 1.2G run 25:14 74 4.90% oracle
7778 oracle 1 43 0 1.3G 1.2G sleep 11:43 110 4.86% oracle
13270 oracle 1 59 0 1.3G 1.2G sleep 210.6H 0 0.96% oracle
13056 oracle 1 48 0 1.3G 1.2G sleep 303:30 0 0.37% oracle
10653 root 1 58 0 2560K 1624K cpu00 0:00 0 0.32% top
18827 oracle 1 58 0 1.3G 1.2G sleep 18.4H 0 0.31% oracle
12748 oracle 258 58 0 1.3G 1.2G sleep 555:14 0 0.21% oracle
10634 oracle 1 59 0 1.3G 1.2G sleep 0:01 0 0.21% oracle
28458 oracle 1 58 0 1.3G 1.2G sleep 535:02 0 0.18% oracle
13075 oracle 1 59 0 1.3G 1.2G sleep 326:33 0 0.15% oracle
13173 oracle 1 58 0 1.3G 1.2G sleep 593:07 0 0.13% oracle
4927 oracle 1 59 0 1.3G 1.2G sleep 33.4H 0 0.11% oracle

可以看到这两个进程号分别是27420和27418.
3.捕获占用CPU利用率过高的SQL语句:
以下用到了我总结的SQL语句:
SQL>set line 240
SQL>set verify off
SQL>column sid format 999
SQL>column pid format 999
SQL>column S_# format 999
SQL>column username format A9 heading "ORA User"
SQL>column program format a29
SQL>column SQL format a60
SQL>COLUMN OSname format a9 Heading "OS User"
SQL>SELECT P.pid pid,S.sid sid,P.spid spid,S.username username,
S.osuser osname,P.serial# S_#,P.terminal,P.program program,
P.background,S.status,RTRIM(SUBSTR(a.sql_text, 1, 80)) SQL
FROM v$process P, v$session S,v$sqlarea A WHERE P.addr = s.paddr
AND S.sql_address = a.address (+) AND P.spid LIKE '%&1%';
Enter value for 1: 27420(注意这里应输入占用CPU最高的进程对应的PID)
得到以下SQL语句:
Select nvl(sum(LOCALCHARGE),0),nvl(sum(usage),0) from LOCALUSAGE where
to_char(ENDTIME,'YYYYMMDD')=20041016
and LOCALCHARGE>0 and caller like '0543886%';
27418进程对应的SQL语句如下:
select nvl(sum(LOCALCHARGE),0) from LOCALUSAGE where
to_char(ENDTIME,'YYYYMMDD')=20041016 and caller like '0543888%';

4.使用相关用户连接到数据库,检查其执行计划:
SQL>connect wacos/oss
Connected.
SQL>@?/rdbms/admin/utlxplan.sql
Table created.
SQL>set autotrace on
SQL>set timing on
SQL>Select nvl(sum(LOCALCHARGE),0),nvl(sum(usage),0) from LOCALUSAGE where
to_char(ENDTIME,'YYYYMMDD')=20041016
and LOCALCHARGE>0 and caller like '0543886%';
NVL(SUM(LOCALCHARGE),0) NVL(SUM(USAGE),0)
----------------------- -----------------
0 0
Elapsed: 00:02:56.37
Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------
0 SELECT STATEMENT ōptimizer=CHOOSE (Cost=13435 Card=1 Bytes=5
3)
1 0 SORT (AGGREGATE)
2 1 PARTITION RANGE (ALL)
3 2 TABLE ACCESS (FULL) OF 'LOCALUSAGE' (Cost=13435 Card=1
81 Bytes=9593)
Statistics
----------------------------------------------------------
258 recursive calls
0 db block gets
88739 consistent gets
15705 physical reads
0 redo size
580 bytes sent via SQL*Net to client
651 bytes received via SQL*Net from client
2 SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client
8 sorts (memory)
0 sorts (disk)
1 rows processed
发现对localusage表做了全表扫描,什么记录也没有返回居然用了2分多钟。

SQL> select nvl(sum(LOCALCHARGE),0) from LOCALUSAGE where
to_char(ENDTIME,'YYYYMMDD')=20040816 and caller like '0543888%';
NVL(SUM(LOCALCHARGE),0)
-----------------------
27.6
Elapsed: 00:03:56.46
Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------
0 SELECT STATEMENT ōptimizer=CHOOSE (Cost=13435 Card=1 Bytes=4
0)
1 0 SORT (AGGREGATE)
2 1 PARTITION RANGE (ALL)
3 2 TABLE ACCESS (FULL) OF 'LOCALUSAGE' (Cost=13435 Card=3
615 Bytes=144600)
Statistics
----------------------------------------------------------
0 recursive calls
0 db block gets
88588 consistent gets
15615 physical reads
0 redo size
507 bytes sent via SQL*Net to client
651 bytes received via SQL*Net from client
2 SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client
0 sorts (memory)
0 sorts (disk)
1 rows processed
这个SQL语句有结果返回,发现也是对localusage表做了全表扫描,但速度也很慢,用了3分多钟。

SQL> select count(*) from localusage;
COUNT(*)
----------
5793776
该表有579万多条记录,数据量很大,全表扫描已经不再适合。
5.检查该表的类型:
SQL> SELECT INDEX_NAME, TABLE_NAME, STATUS, PARTITIONED FROM USER_INDEXES WHERE
TABLE_NAME='LOCALUSAGE';
INDEX_NAME TABLE_NAME STATUS PAR
------------------------------ ------------------------------ -------- ---
I_LOCALUSAGE_SID LOCALUSAGE N/A YES
UI_LOCALUSAGE_ST_SEQ LOCALUSAGE N/A YES

SQL> SELECT index_name,table_name,locality FROM user_part_indexes where
table_name='LOCALUSAGE';
INDEX_NAME TABLE_NAME LOCALI
------------------------------ ------------------------------ ------
I_LOCALUSAGE_SID LOCALUSAGE LOCAL
UI_LOCALUSAGE_ST_SEQ LOCALUSAGE LOCAL
发现该表是分区表,并在SERVICEID,STARTIME和CDRSEQUENCE列上建立了分区索引,索引类型是local索引。

6.查看分区索引的索引键值:
SQL> select INDEX_NAME,COLUMN_NAME,INDEX_OWNER from dba_ind_columns where
TABLE_NAME='LOCALUSAGE';
INDEX_NAME COLUMN_NAME INDEX_OWNER
-------------------- -------------------- ------------------------------
I_LOCALUSAGE_SID SERVICEID WACOS
UI_LOCALUSAGE_ST_SEQ STARTTIME WACOS
UI_LOCALUSAGE_ST_SEQ CDRSEQUENCE WACOS
发现在endtime和caller列上都没有建立索引,这也是导致SQL语句做全表扫描的最终原因。
7.决定创建新的分区索引以消除全表扫描:
(1).首先查看localusage表分区情况:
SQL> select PARTITION_NAME,tablespace_name from user_tab_partitions where
table_name='LOCALUSAGE';
PARTITION_NAME TABLESPACE_NAME
------------------------------ ------------------------------
LOCALUSAGE_200312 WACOS
LOCALUSAGE_200401 WACOS
LOCALUSAGE_200402 WACOS
LOCALUSAGE_200404 WACOS
LOCALUSAGE_200405 WACOS
LOCALUSAGE_200406 WACOS
LOCALUSAGE_200407 WACOS
LOCALUSAGE_200409 WACOS
LOCALUSAGE_200410 WACOS
LOCALUSAGE_200411 WACOS
LOCALUSAGE_200403 WACOS
LOCALUSAGE_200408 WACOS
LOCALUSAGE_200412 WACOS
13 rows selected.
(2).在caller列上创建local分区索引:
SQL>set timing on
SQL>create index I_LOCALUSAGE_CALLER on localusage(caller)
LOCAL
(
PARTITION LOCALUSAGE_200312,
PARTITION LOCALUSAGE_200401,
PARTITION LOCALUSAGE_200402,
PARTITION LOCALUSAGE_200404,
PARTITION LOCALUSAGE_200405,
PARTITION LOCALUSAGE_200406,
PARTITION LOCALUSAGE_200407,
PARTITION LOCALUSAGE_200409,
PARTITION LOCALUSAGE_200410,
PARTITION LOCALUSAGE_200411,
PARTITION LOCALUSAGE_200403,
PARTITION LOCALUSAGE_200408,
PARTITION LOCALUSAGE_200412
)
TABLESPACE wacos
STORAGE(
INITIAL 6553600
NEXT 6553600
MAXEXTENTS unlimited
PCTINCREASE 0)
PCTFREE 5
NOLOGGING;
Index created.
Elapsed: 00:06:27.90 (由于数据量比较大,耗时6分钟)
8.再次查看执行计划:
SQL>Select nvl(sum(LOCALCHARGE),0),nvl(sum(usage),0) from LOCALUSAGE where
to_char(ENDTIME,'YYYYMMDD')=20041016
and LOCALCHARGE>0 and caller like '0543886%';
NVL(SUM(LOCALCHARGE),0) NVL(SUM(USAGE),0)
----------------------- -----------------
0 0
Elapsed: 00:00:03.00
Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------
0 SELECT STATEMENT ōptimizer=CHOOSE (Cost=22 Card=1 Bytes=53)
1 0 SORT (AGGREGATE)
2 1 PARTITION RANGE (ALL)
3 2 TABLE ACCESS (BY LOCAL INDEX ROWID) OF 'LOCALUSAGE' (Cost=22
Card=181 Bytes=9593)
4 3 INDEX (RANGE SCAN) OF 'I_LOCALUSAGE_CALLER' (NON-UNIQUE)
(Cost=14 Card=65063)
Statistics
----------------------------------------------------------
0 recursive calls
0 db block gets
16813 consistent gets
569 physical reads
0 redo size
580 bytes sent via SQL*Net to client
651 bytes received via SQL*Net from client
2 SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client
0 sorts (memory)
0 sorts (disk)
1 rows processed
这次走了索引后速度明显快多了,用了3秒钟就返回了结果。

SQL>select nvl(sum(LOCALCHARGE),0) from LOCALUSAGE where
to_char(ENDTIME,'YYYYMMDD')=20040816 and caller like '0543888%';
NVL(SUM(LOCALCHARGE),0)
-----------------------
27.6
Elapsed: 00:00:24.73
Execution Plan
----------------------------------------------------------
0 SELECT STATEMENT ōptimizer=CHOOSE (Cost=22 Card=1 Bytes=40)
1 0 SORT (AGGREGATE)
2 1 PARTITION RANGE (ALL)
3 2 TABLE ACCESS (BY LOCAL INDEX ROWID) OF 'LOCALUSAGE' (Cost=22
Card=3615 Bytes=144600)
4 3 INDEX (RANGE SCAN) OF 'I_LOCALUSAGE_CALLER' (NON-UNIQUE)
(Cost=14 Card=65063)
Statistics
----------------------------------------------------------
0 recursive calls
0 db block gets
129336 consistent gets
7241 physical reads
0 redo size
507 bytes sent via SQL*Net to client
651 bytes received via SQL*Net from client
2 SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client
0 sorts (memory)
0 sorts (disk)
1 rows processed
这个SQL语句走了索引,用了24秒钟返回结果,性能明显提高了很多

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本文标题:数据库优化一例 zt
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